An essential amino acid for all athletes
Evolution L-glutamine is a 100 % pure l-glutamine powder that has been manufactured by the newest technology. L-glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in our body, which has numerous functions. L-glutamine has been shown in studies to increase power and performance and improve recovery. L-glutamine is safe to use and it is suitable for all athletes.
The glutamine use is based for example on the fact that muscles release glutamine during training. Glutamine ends up in the kidney as a pre-form of ammoniac formation and for glucose formation (1, 2), as energy for internal organs, developing connective tissue cells and lymphoid tissues. To minimise muscle breakdown, glutamine may be a required supplement (3, 4, 5). Glutamine losses can be significant (6, 7) and glutamine supplementation may accelerate the breakdown of BCAA amino acids in particular. Cell-internal glutamine reserves may increase protein synthesis and may reduce protein breakdown (8-15). Glutamine may prevent glucocorticoid-based catabolism (16, 17). It also may have a direct anabolic effect (18). The effect probably involves cell hydration (19, 20).
- 100 % pure l-glutamine powder
- The most abundant amino acid in our body, that has numerous functions
- May increase muscle mass
- May increase maximum strength and improve endurance
- May improve recovery
- May reduce muscle pain
- May reduce cortisol -hormone secretion. High cortisol levels indicate overtraining.
- May reduce inflammation and strengthen the immune system
- May protect the liver
- May prevent overtraining
- The raw material is non-chinese
Nutrition facts per 100 g:
- 1674 kJ / 400 kcal energy
- 0 g carbohydrates
- 100 g protein
- 0 g fat
One 5 g serving contains:
- Natural (200 g, 40 doses)
1. Kreider, M.E., M. Stumvoll, C. Meyer, D. Overkamp, S. Welle, and J. Gerich. Steady-state and non-steady-state measurements of plasma glutamine turnover in humans. Am J Physiol 1997;271:E621-E627.
2. Perriello, G., N. Nurjhan, M. Stumvoll, A. Bucci, S. Welle, G. Dailey, D. M. Bier, I. Toft, T. G. Jenssen, and J. E. Gerich. Regulation of gluconeogenesis by glutamine in normal, postabsoptive humans. Am J Physiol 1997;272:E437-E445.
3. Newsholme EA, Crabtree B, Ardawi MS. The role of high rates of glycolysis and glutamine utilization in rapidly dividing cells. Bioscience Reports 1985; 5(5):393-400.
4. Lemon PW, Nagle FJ. Effects of exercise on protein and amino acid metabolism. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1981; 13(3:141-9.
5. Brooks GA. Amino acid and protein metabolism during exercise and recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987;19(5 Suppl):S150-6.
6. Furst P, Albers S, Stehle P. Evidence for a nutritional need for glutamine in catabolic patients. Kidney Int Suppl 1989; 27:S287-92.
7. Katz A, Broberg S, Sahlin K, Wahren J. Muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism during dynamic exercise in man. Clin Physiol 1986; 6(4):365-79.
8. Darmaun D. [In vivo exploration of glutamine metabolism in man] Diabete Metab 1992; 18 1 Pt 2):117-121.
9. Rennie MJ, MacLennan PA, Hundal HS, et al. Skeletal muscle glutamine transport, intramuscular glutamine concentration, and muscle-protein turnover. Metabolism 1989; 38(8 Suppl 1):47-51.
10. Haussinger D, Roth E, lang F, et al. Cellular hydration state: an important determinant of protein catabolism in helth and disease. Lancet 1993; 341:1330-1332.
11. Roth E, Funovics J, Muhlbacher F, et al. Metabolic disorders in severe abdominal sepsis: glutamine deficiency in skeletal muscle. Clin Nutr 1982; 1:25-41.
12. Hammarqvist F, Wernerman J, Ali R, von der Decken A, Vinnars E. Addition of glutamine to total parenteral nutrition after elective abdominal surgery spares free glutamine in muscle, counteracts the fall in muscle protein synthesis, and improves nitrogen balance. Ann Surg 1989; 209(4):455-461.
13. Wernerman J, Hammarkvist F, Ali MR, Vinnars E. Glutamine and ornithine-alpha-ketoglurate but not branched-chain amino acids reduce the loss of muscle glutamine after surgical trauma. Metabolism 1989; 38(8 Suppl 1):63-66.
14. Blomqvist BI, Hammarqvist F, von der Decken A, Wernerman J. Glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate prevent the decrease in muscle free glutamine concentration and influence protein synthesis after total hip replacement. Metab Clin Exp 1995; 44(9):1215-22.
15. Vinnars E, Hammarqvist F, von der Decken A, Wernerman J. Role of glutamine and its analogs in posttraumatic muscle protein and amino acid metabolism. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 1990; 14(4 Suppl):125S-129S.
16. Hickson RC, Czerwinski SM, Wegrzyn LE. Glutamine prevents downregulation of myosin heavy chain synthesis and muscle atrophy from glucocorticoids. Am J Physiol 1995; 268(4 Pt 1):E730-4.
17. Hickson RC, Wegrzyn LE, Osborne DF, Karl IE. Alanyl-glutamine prevents muscle atrophy and glutamine synthetase induction by clucocorticoids. Am J Physiol 1996; 271(5 Pt 2):R1165-72.
18. Hankard RG, Haymond MW, Darmaun D. Effect of glutamine on leucine metabolism in humans. Am J Physiol 1996; 271(4 Pt 1):E748-54.
19. Bevan SJ, Parry-Billings M, Opara E, et al. The effect of cell volume on rate of lactate release from rat skeletal muscle. Biochem Soc Trans 1991; 19:198S.
20. Low SY, Taylor PM, Rennie MJ. Responses of glutamine transport in cultured rat skeletal muscle to osmotically induced changes in cell volume. J Physiol 1996; 492(Pt 3):877-85.